Medical Terminology The Pancreas and Type 2 Diabetes

The pancreas is an accessory organ of digestion. The pancreas is an elongated organ of approximately 6 to 9 inches. It is loed the upper left quaant of the abdomen, behind the stomach. It extends horizontally across the body, beginning at the first part of the small intestines (duodenum) and ending at the edge of the spleen. The pancreas functions as both an exocrine and an endocrine gland. As an exocrine gland, the pancreas manufactures the digestive juices containing: trypsin (which breaks down proteins) pancreatic lipase (which breaks down fats)

pancreatic amylase (which breaks down carbohyates) sodium bicarbonate, which neutralizes acidic stomach content. As an endocrine gland,the pancreas manufactures insulin. Specialized group of cells known as the islets of Langerhans are stered throughout the pancreas. Beta cells of the pancreas secrete insulin, a hormone that makes it possible for glucose to pass from the blood through the cell membranes to be used for energy. Insulin also promotes the conversion of excess glucose into glycogen. The alpha cells of the pancreas secrete glucagon, a hormone that stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucosetime of need. Type 2 Diabetes is gradualonset.

It results from the body's deficiencyproducing enough insulin or resistance of the action of insulin by the body's cells. Type 2 is the most common form of Diabetes. It is usually diagnosedadults older than age 40, although it has increased amongst America's young adults. It is very common for overweight and obese people whose responsiveness to insulin is abnormally low to develop Type II diabetes. Other contributing factors to Diabetes Type 2 is inheritance and other factors that lead to insulin resistance. One of the symptoms to the onset of Diabetes Type 2 is Hyperglycemia, which is high blood sugar. and this includes frequent urination, y skin, hunger, blurred vision, owsiness, and nausea. A reductioninsulin deprives cells of the glucose fuel they need and they begin to metabolize proteins and fats as replacements.

This activity causes metabolic waste products known as ketones. Increased tissue resistance to insulin generally occurs first and is eventually followed by impaired insulin secretion. The pancreas produces insulin, yet insulin resistance prevents its proper use at the cellular level. Glucose cannot enter target cells and accumulatesthe bloodstream, resultinghyperglycemia. When excessive glucose accumulatesthe blood, an overflow sent to the urine, a condition called glycosuria develops. Polydipsia is a term given to excessive thirst and is one of the initial symptoms of Diabetes. Another symptom of Diabetes is Polyuria, which is the excessive passage of urine of at least 2.5 Liters per day for an adult, resultingprefuse urination and urinary frequency. Compliions of diabetes cover a wide range of ailments from circulatory problems to infections to organ failure.

Diabetic nephropathy is a kidney disease resulting from diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy is loss of sensation the extremities. Diabetic retinopathy is a disease of the retinal blood vessels causing gradual visual loss leading to blindness. The goal of diabetes treatment is to keep blood glucose levels as near to normal as possible. Treatment for the disease includes diet, weight loss, and exercise. It may also include insulin or oral antidiabetic agents, which activate the release of pancreatic insulin and improves the body's sensitivity to insulin. Type 2 diabetes usually has a slow onset and may remain undiagnosed for years. Approximately half of those who have type 2 diabetes are unaware of their disease.

It's important to eat and sleep well, exercise, and lose weight if necessary to reduce one's propensity to this disease.

Development of Glaucoma Animation Open Angle vs Angle Closure Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a group of eye diseaseswhichthe optic nerve is damaged leading to irreversible loss of vision. In most cases, this damageis due to an increased pressure within the eye.The eye produces a fluid called aqueous humor which is secreted by the ciliary body intothe posterior chamber a space between the iris and the lens. It then flows through thepupil into the anterior chamber between the iris and the cornea. From here, it ainsthrough a spongelike structure loed at the base of the iris called the trabecularmeshwork and leaves the eye. In a healthy eye, the rate of secretion balances the rateof ainage.

In people with glaucoma, the ainage canalis partially or completely blocked. Fluid builds upthe chambers and this increasespressure within the eye. The pressure ives the lens back and presses on the vitreousbody whichturn compresses and damages the blood vessels and nerve fibers runningat the back of the eye. These damaged nerve fibers resultpatches of vision loss, andif left untreated, may lead to total blindness. There are two main types of glaucoma: openangleand angleclosure. Openangle glaucoma , or chronic glaucoma,is caused by partial blockage of the ainage canal. The angle between the cornea and theiris is quot;openquot;, meaning the entrance to the

ain is clear, but the flow of aqueous humoris somewhat slow. The pressure builds up graduallythe eye over a long period of time. Symptomsappear gradually, starting from peripheral vision loss, and may go on unnoticed untilthe central vision is affected. Progression of glaucoma can be stopped with medical treatments,but part of vision that is already lost can not be restored. This is why it's very importantto detect signs of glaucoma early with regular eye exams.Angleclosure glaucoma, or acute glaucoma, is caused by a sudden and complete blockageof aqueous humor ainage. The pressure within the eye rises rapidly and may lead to totalvision loss quickly. Certain anatomical features

of the eye such as narrow ainage angle,shallow anterior chamber, thin and oopy iris, make it easier to develop acute glaucoma.Typically, this happens when the pupil is dilated and the lens is stuck to the backof the iris. This prevents the aqueous humor from flowing through the pupil into the anteriorchamber. Accumulation of fluidthe posterior chamber presses on the iris causing it tobulge outward and block the ainage angle completely. Acute angleclosure glaucoma isa medical emergency and requires immediate attention.